  

tractography from DTI data
clustered fibers
Filopodium (highlighted) from confocal microscopy
CT of fractured skull
skeletal motion
David C. Banks, Ph.D.
served as a Visiting Professor of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, 20052006.
He is a member of the UT/ORNL
Joint Institute for Computational Sciences
with an appointment in the EECS department
at the University of Tennessee.
His research interests are focused on visualizing how the
developing brain responds to insult and injury, with the goal of
using 3D imaging to evaluate rehabilitation therapies.
David Banks received the M.S. degree in Mathematics and the
Ph.D. degree in Computer Science from
the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill where he did research
on interactive visualization of 4dimensional data,
including a technique for illumination in
diverse codimensions; this technique is now referred to as the
Banks model of illumination. His postdoctoral
training was at NASA Langley Research Center where he developed
flow visualization and vortex visualization algorithms at the
Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE).
As a member of the Visualization Thrust at the National Science Foundation
Engineering Research Center (NSF ERC) for Computational Field Simulation,
he received the National Science Foundation's CAREER Award for
research in vector field visualization. His paper ``Counting Cases
in Marching Cubes'' received the Best Paper award from IEEE Visualization.
Email: banks at bwh dot harvard dot edu



[website]

Gliocast.

Gliocast is a set of software tools developed by the Banks Laboratory to
create visualizations of fiber tracts.

[video]
[google search]

David C. Banks,
``Show me What's Wrong Inside:
Making 3D Medical Data Accessible to Everyone,''
Google
Tech Talk,
Nov 06, 2007.

When millions of individuals upload their 3D medical scans
onto the Web, it will become possible for them to compare their
injury or pathology to others that are similar, and to compare
outcome trajectories resulting from different treatment options.

[pdf]

David C. Banks and CarlFredrik Westin,
``Global Illumination of White Matter Fibers
From DTMRI Data,''
Visualization in Medicine and Life Sciences,
Springer, 2007,
ISBN10: 3540726292,
ISBN13: 9783540726296.

We describe our recent work in applying physicallybased
global illumination to fiber tractography from
diffusion tensor MRI of the brain.

[software]

Pane, a physically based renderer.

Pane implements photon mapping and MonteCarlo path tracing.
Pane reads Inventor/VRML1.0 files, uses octrees,
and supports HDR imagebased lighting and texture mapping.

[pdf]

David C. Banks and Laith AbuRaddad,
``The Foundations of Photorealistic Rendering:
From Quantum Electrodynamics to Maxwell's Equations,''
Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference
on Graphics and Visualization in Engineering 2007
(GVE 2007, January 37, 2007, Clearwater, FL, USA),
M. S. Alam, ed.,
ACTA Press,
ISBN: 9780889866256,
Paper number 562044, pp. 137144.

We
describe how the fundamental description of photons, in terms of quantum electrodynamics
(QED), yields Maxwell's equations for electromagnetic waves
in the limit as the number photons grows large.

[pdf]

David C. Banks and Kevin Beason,
``Fast Global Illumination for
Visualizing Isosurfaces with a 3D Illumination Grid,''
Computing in Science & Engineering,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (JanFeb 2007: special issue on
anatomic rendering and visualization),
pp. 4854.

Users who examine isosurfaces of their 3D data sets generally
view them with local illumination because global illumination
is too computationally intensive. By storing the precomputed
illumination in a texture map, visualization systems can let
users sweep through globally illuminated isosurfaces of their
data at interactive speeds.

[pdf]

Kayne M. Smith, David C. Banks, Neil Druckmann, Kevin Beason, and
M. Yousuff Hussaini,
``Clustered Ensemble Averaging: A Technique for Visualizing
Qualitative Features of Stochastic Simulations,''
Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience,
Vol. 3, No. 5,
2006,
pp. 19.

We present a technique for displaying the aggregate behavior
of nanoscale fluid flows in a simulation of laserassisted
particle removal (LAPR).

[pdf]

Kevin M. Beason, Josh Grant, David C. Banks, Brad Futch, and M. Yousuff Hussaini,
``Precomputed Illumination for Isosurfaces,''
Visualization and Data Analysis 2006 (SPIE Vol. 6060),
pp. 6060B:111.

We precompute global illumination on level sets within a volume,
then interpolate the radiance samples onto a 3D illumination grid,
then texturemap the result in real time onto isosurfaces generated
within a visualization engine.

[pdf]

Kevin M. Beason and David C. Banks,
``Retrorendering with Vectorvalued Light: Producing Local Illumination
from the Transport Equation,''
Visualization and Data Analysis 2006 (SPIE Vol. 6060),
pp. 6060C:17.

We propose an interpretation of the light transport equation that produces OpenGLstyle
local illumination, and we demonstrate its correctness in sidebyside
comparisons of a rendered scene. The purpose of the model is to establish
a theory of rendering with a single governing equation under which either
global illumination or local illumination can serve as a correct solution
as determined by boundary conditions.

[pdf]

David C. Banks and Wilfredo Blanco,
``InvIncrements: Incremental Software to Support Visual Simulation,''
Visualization and Data Analysis 2006 (SPIE Vol. 6060),
pp. 6060I:17.

We demonstrate a progressive sequence of instructional software modules to support
a curriculum in computational science. The modules use Open Inventor
to manage the geometry, the rendering, and the user's interaction with a dynamic 3D
problemsolving environment.
The modules employ principles of literate programming, producing graphically
illustrated code.

[pdf]

David C. Banks and Paul K. Stockmeyer,
``Debruijn Counting for Visualization Algorithms,''
Mathematical Foundations of Scientific Visualization,
Computer Graphics, and Massive Data Exploration,
SpringerVerlag
(in press).

We calculate closedform solutions for the number of cases of polytope colorings
by applying deBruijn's extension of Pólya counting.

[pdf]

David C. Banks, Stephen A. Linton, and Paul K. Stockmeyer,
``Counting Cases in Substitope Algorithms,''
IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics,
Vol. 10, No. 4 (July/August 2004),
pp. 371384.

We show how enumerating classes of vertexcolored polytopes can be
accomplished by using Pólya counting.
This permits us to count numbers of cases that exceed the counting capacity
of software for computational group theory.

[pdf]

David C. Banks and Stephen A. Linton,
``Counting Cases in Marching Cubes:
Toward a Generic Algorithm for Producing
Substitopes,''
IEEE Visualization 2003, pp. 5158
(chosen Best Paper).

We demonstrate the fundamental similarity of various visualization algorithms
(e.g., Marching Squares, Marching Cubes, Marching Hypercubes, Sweeping Simplices,
Contour Meshing, Interval Volumes, Separating Surfaces). Each algorithm performs
a geometric substitution on polytopes. Analyzing the substitution requires enumerating
equivalence classes of vertex colorings, which can be performed using software
for computational group theory.

[pdf]

Monica K. Hurdal, Kevin W. Kurtz, and David C. Banks,
``Case Study: Interacting with Cortical Flat Maps of the Human Brain,''
IEEE Visualization 2001,
pp. 469472, 591.

We demonstrate a technique for animating flatmapping of the cortex
of the human brain in order to show the correspondence between the convoluted
3D structure of the surface and a 2D quasiconformal flattening of it.
In order to provide illumination cues for allowing the human
visual system to infer shape from shading of the 2D flattened image, we
propose a pullback function from the 3D illuminated surface.

[pdf]

David C. Banks, John T. Foley, Kiril Vidimce,
MongHoe Kiu, and Jay Brown,
``Interactive 3D Visualization of Optical Phenomena,''
IEEE Computer Graphics & Applications,
Vol. 18, No. 4 (July/August 1998), IEEE Computer Society, pp. 6669.

We describe The Optics Project (TOP), a suite of
interactive 3D graphical simulations to visualize and experiment with
optical phenomena. The instructional modules in TOP are
designed for use in undergraduate physics classes.

[pdf]

MingHoe Kiu, XiaoSong Du, Robert J. Moorhead, David C. Banks,
and Raghu Machiraju,
``Two Dimensional Sequence Compression Using MPEG,''
SPIE Vol. 3309,
SPIE/IS&T Electronic Imaging 1997 (San Jose, CA), January 1998,
pp. 914921 (330990:18)

The MPEG encoding compresses a 1dimensional array of images in
an animation. We show how to extend MPEG to compress the 2dimensional
array of images in a light field (used for
imagebased 3D rendering from photographs).

[pdf]
[blog]

Liqun Jin and David C. Banks,
``TennisViewer: a Browser for Competition Trees,''
IEEE Computer Graphics & Applications,
Vol. 21, No. 2 (March/April 1997),
pergamon Press, pp. 171178.

We demonstrate a multiscale visualization of the outcome
of a tennis match (from points to games to sets to match)
based on transparent overlays in a treemap.
The highlevel wins colors the lowerlevel wins so that
even when zooming to view the data (e.g., with a magic lens)
the larger context can be apprehended.

[pdf]

Chris Weigle and David C. Banks,
``Extracting isovalued features in 4dimensional scalar fields,''
IEEE Symposium on Volume Visualization 1998 (Research Triangle Park, NC),
pp. 103110.

We apply 4dimensional recursive contouring to extract multiresolution
isosurfaces (with scale being the 4th dimension), to extract envelopes
of timevarying isosurfaces, and to construct implicit surfaces containing
selfintersections.

[pdf]

Chris Weigle and David C. Banks,
``Complexvalued contour meshing,''
IEEE Visualization 1996 (San Francisco, CA).
pp. 173180.

We introduce construction of level sets (contours) from
scalar functions and vectorvalued functions of
four variables. This extends the conventional notion of
generating isosurfaces of 3D scalar functions using Marching Cubes.
We demonstrate application of the technique is to visualize critical points
of homotopies of complex curves, which appear as deforming
selfintersecting surfaces when mapped from complex space C^2
to real space R^4 and then projected to R^3.

[pdf]
[citeseer]

Greg Turk and David C. Banks,
``Imageguided Streamline Placement,''
Computer Graphics (Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 1996),
pp. 453460.

We algorithmically place streamlines in a vector field
by minimizing an energy functional derived as a lowpass
filtered version of a rendered image. The technique can also
produce multiresolution streamline images of vector fields.

[pdf]

MingHoe Kiu and David C. Banks,
``Multifrequency Noise for LIC,''
IEEE Visualization 1996
pp. 121126.

We construct a multiresolution flow visualization
using Line Integral Convolution (LIC) with
a multifrequency noise texture.
This technique allows a broad range of
feature sizes to be displayed in an image.

[pdf]

David C. Banks and Bart A. Singer,
``A PredictorCorrector Technique for Visualizing Unsteady Flow,''
IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 151163,
June 1995.

We present a method for visualizing unsteady flow by displaying its vortices.
The vortices are identified by using a vorticitypredictor pressurecorrector
scheme that follows vortex cores.

[pdf]

David C. Banks,
``Illumination in Diverse Codimensions,''
Computer Graphics (Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 1994), Vol. 28,
pp. 327334.
June 1995.

We present a model of illumination in arbitrarily large dimensions,
based on a few characteristics of material and light in three dimensions.
The model permits illuminating curves, anisotropic reflectors,
and furry surfaces as well as kmanifolds in n dimensions.

 
